**annulus**- a tube
*Each of the above is an annulus: a gluing diagram of an annulus, a ring, and a tube.* **boundary**- the border of a region
*The above box has one boundary that runs along all four sides.* **edge**- the border between two connected faces of a polyhedron
*In the above picture, segment AB is an edge of the tetrahedron.* **finite**- not infinite
*The above segment is finite. It does not extend forever in any direction.* **fundamental domain**- the smallest part of a pattern which can be repeated to form the
entire pattern
*In the above picture, the small square on the right with its contents is the fundamental doman for the tiling on the left.* **geometry**- the study of the measurements of lengths,
angles, area, and volumes; the study of the relationships between points,
lines, angles, surfaces, and solids. Some of these change when a surface
is deformed.
**glide**- translation; the transformation of an image by a distance and a direction
*The square on the left is the orignal square, called the preimage. The image to its right is formed by moving the preimage in the direction of the arrow. The total distance which the image is moved is equal to the length of the arrow. Note that the arrow is there for demonstrative purposes only; it is not part of the preimage.* **glide-reflection**- a composition of a glide and a reflection;
a translation and a reflection of an object
*Here, the preimage on the left is first reflected across the arrow and then a glide is applied to it (see glide), giving the image to the right.* **gluing diagram**- a diagram with connected edges marked with an arrow for gluing.
*This is a gluing diagram of a Mobius strip. If one were to cut it out,stretch it, and glue the sides together so that the arrows lined up, it would look like the representation of a Mobius strip in three dimensional space. This Mobius strip diagram has the same intrinsic topology of a Mobis strip placed in three dimensional space.* **infinite**- without end
*The ray is infinite in the direction of the arrow.* **reflection**- mirror image
*Triangle ABC is reflected about line l to make triangle A'B'C'.* **rotation**- a spin around a certain point, called the center of rotation
*Triangle ABC is rotated (45 degrees) about point P to make triangle A'B'C'* **slope**- the upward or downward slant of a line or the
inclination of the slant of a line
*Segment AB extends up two units for every unit to the right that it extends. Thus, it has slope 2/1.* **symmetrical**- correspondence in size, shape, and relative position
*Each of the above shapes is symmetrical since the part of the shape on one side of the arrow is the same as the part of the shape on the other side of the arrow except for its position.* **topology**- the study of surfaces; the study of properties
which do not change under certain transformations
**torus**- the surface of a donut; can also be represented by a flat gluing diagram
*Above is a doughnut-shaped torus and a torus gluing diagram. They are both intrinsically topologically a torus.* **transformation**- a change like a glide, rotation, reflection, or glide-reflection
*The above rotation and reflection are examples of transformations*